DATSUN Z FENDER AND BODY KITS
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This FAQ section is a work in progress. Bear with me over the next few weeks as I flesh it out! Select "View>Refresh" to make sure you have the most recent version cached.
The list is organized in a semi-logical fashion. Please read through all sections, and if you can't immediately find something you need, try "Control-F." If that doesn't lead you to an answer, my contact information is at the bottom of the list.
Referenced in some sections there is a separate page with more detail, philosophy, and humor. Click on the highlighted "more" where indicated to go to that page.
Full Body Kits are just that: They cover or replace all of the existing Z or ZX body, with the exception of the windshield and windshield frame.
If you are building a kit that requires removal of the roof of the car, reinforcing of the unibody chassis is recommended.
Fender Kits consist of the air dam, front fenders, rear quarters, and a rear spoiler. The Subtle Z kit includes the hood, which is available as an upgrade on both the 940Z and 280YZ kits. The rear spoiler can be deleted from all kits for $150 credit.
The Subtle Z was designed primarily as a street kit, with the front fenders bolting on in place of the stock fenders. They can be attached with Dzuz fasteners for racing application. The Subtle Z is 1.5 inches wider than stock, on all four corners.
The 940Z and 280YZ are designed as racing kits, with the front fenders having smaller returns and being designed to Dzuz on. However, they can be bolted on with slight modification. The 940Z kit is about 2 inches wider than stock on all four corners, while the 280YZ adds about 3 inches on either side at both front and rear.
Quality Note: The molds for the 940Z and the 280YZ kit are showing their age. Therefore, the parts will not be as pretty out of the box as those for the Subtle Z. The gelcoat will have a more "flat" appearance and there may be small imperfections. However, you can be assured that the quality of the lamination is top notch, and your parts will have as high a strength-to-weight ratio as any you can by for a comparable price. The steps required to mount, sand, prime, and paint these parts are exactly the same as if they were shiny! I will build new molds one of these days, but for the moment these parts are a good value and I will try to continue keeping the cost down.
All three fender kits utilize rear quarters that are designed to attach via either Dzuz fasteners or bonding over the existing rear quarters. The stock panels must be trimmed out to provide room for the larger wheels and tires required.
Any parts from these kits can be supplied separately. If you want to retain your stock front end, but need large rear quarters to cover monster drag slicks on your V8 Z, you can buy the rear quarters separately.
Conversely, if you have already modified your rears and want to upgrade the fronts, you can purchase separately any of our front fenders. Please note, however, that because of the extra width you will need to either purchase a matching air dam, or modify the one you are planning to use.
Installation of a fender kit is mostly bolt-on in the front. In the back, there are two ways to do it. Most racers remove most of the quarter panel (technically the "fender" is the front, the rear is part of the unibody and is called a "quarter panel") and attach with Dzus quarter-turn fasteners for easy removal and installation. Since it is part of the structure, most racers tie everything back together with tubes connected to the roll cage.
For street use most customers simply trim out the quarter panel to a profile that matches the size of the height of the wheel. So you make a cut at the lip edge of the quarter panel to separate it from the wheel well. Then cut out from the outer panel a crescent moon shape that peaks about 3 inches above the lip. The inner panel can then be slotted and the tabs bent up to be re-attached for structural integrity.
Roadster Kits consist of a header cap for the top of the windshield, a rear deck, and a trunk lid. We are not currently offering convertible tops for the kits because we are redesigning the previous tops. However, there is a removeable hardtop available for the Z Spyder.
Mix and Match Parts from Various Kits
You can mix and match parts from the various kits I offer at no extra cost. For example, if you like the width of the 280YZ rear flares but want only a slight increase in width at the front, you can use the Subtle Z front fenders. The Subtle hood will work with any of the kits (except the complete rebody kits), but is not required. This goes for the Subtle rear spoiler, as well.
I have also sold VR and Daytona ZX rear tubs to customers who wanted to retain the stock front end and vice versa. This is not as straight-forward, as the VR and Daytona parts are intended to work with the extra width provided by the door skins. However, this can be overcome with a little extra effort.
Generally, however, the fender kits are designed to work with the appropriate air dam. You can mix and match the air dams, or even use bumper caps like those from Motorsport. Dan Juday and Ron Best did that with great success. Just realize that you are going to have to do a little fiberglass work in order to make the pieces match up.
Ease of Installation
How easy is the VR kit to build? That's a $64,000 question. The answer depends upon your motivation, your skill, and the tools and assistance available to you.
For an unbiased look at installation effort, check out Teo Leonard's documentation of his build, which is ongoing. I like to say that it's about halfway between a Fiero-based kit (that is, one that doesn't require a wheelbase stretch) and a ground-up car like a Cobra. Your donor is already sitting on it's own suspension, and (if you don't do a swap) already has the drive train and wiring in place. If you can resist rebuilding every part of the donor car (which is tempting) you can have it together and ready for paint prep in 100 to 150 man-hours.
The customers who have built the VR range from those who have never turned a wrench before, but enjoy learning the skills as they go along, to those who are extremely experienced. I've seen very nice cars built by both extremes.
The Z is a uni-body car, so the installation process involves removing the roof, reinforcing the chassis, removing and replacing front-end components (bolt-on), trimming out the rear wheel wells and bonding on the rear tub. Obviously, there is a lot of smaller work, such as bolting on door mirrors, license plate, etc.
I strongly recommend that you get my Velo Rossa Installation Manual, the Jags That Run Z V8 book, the Haynes Z service book, and read them thoroughly. Then if you have more questions about the installation, email me and we'll clear them up before you begin.
The Daytona is similar to the VR in the way it installs.
The other kits I sell are to varying degrees easier than the VR and Daytona. Front-end components are all bolt-on or (in the case of racing applications) fastened with Dzus fasteners. Rear components are all bond-on, but can also be attached with Dzuz fasteners for racing.
The Z Spyder and ZX Spyder involve cutting off the roof (obviously), and like with the VR and Daytona reinforcing is always recommended when you remove the roof.
The 940Z, 280YZ, and Subtle Z don't require removing the roof (though you can use parts from these kits on the Z Spyder), so the installation is more simple. You also do not have to reinforce the donor car, but there will be a little trimming in the rear wheel well area to allow clearance for the larger wheels and tires you will want to use with these kits. If you (or your body shop) have installed fender flares before, any of these three kits should be pretty straight-forward for you.
I just published a free online fender kit installation guide that explains the process in more detail.
Our kits and body parts are designed to fit specific donor cars. There are two ranges of donors: First Generation Zs include 1970-1978, 240, 260, or 280Z. Kits designed for the First Generation Z will fit any car in that range (except 2+2, see below). Second Generation cars are the 280ZXs from 1979-1983. Kits designed for the 280ZX will fit any car in that range (again, 2+2 cars are the exception).
Kits designed for First Gen cars will not directly fit the other. You can modify the kits to fit, but you may find the labor and/or expense required is more than that for simply finding the correct donor. Yes the cars are very close in all dimensions, but you can't make a Z fender or door fit a ZX without a lot of work. The same goes for the fiberglass parts.
This matrix describes the kits that are available to fit your car, or conversely the year of donor you need to fit a particular kit. Click in the cells for more information on each kit.
Donor Car, Years
Full Body Kits
Fender Kits and Panels
240, 260, 280 Z, 1970-1978
280 ZX, 1979-1983
Why not make a kit for the Third Generation 300ZX (or a Velo Rossa kit for the 280ZX)? Several reasons: 1) It is tremendously expensive to reprototype and retool a kit for a new donor platform. The Velo Rossa cost about $15,000 to prototype (and I actually had an old Alpha GTO kit to start with, which saved a lot of expense) and another $15,000 to make the molds. That was more than ten years ago so it would undoubtedly cost more today. 2) The 300ZX is a much more complicated vehicle and therefore much more difficult to modify for performance 3) It is not very well supported in the aftermarket...that is you don't have the same wide selection of performance parts and other modifications.
None of my kits are designed to fit directly on any of the 2+2 cars. I have sold a few kits to folks who have adapted them for such vehicles, and if that is your desire I can provide you with information on the process. However, doing such an installation is warranted only if you have sufficient time to devote to it and/or you have some special need for the extra room. It is a fair amount of additional work compared to just finding a 2-seat donor.
The modifications required include lengthening the rear tub between the back of the door and the rear wheels, and lengthening the door skins. The front-end components should bolt on without modification.
However, in addition to the modifications required, the 2+2 cars were heavier and the wheelbase was longer. Both of these features will degrade performance.
Within the listed ranges there are minor differences. In the first generation Z, the 75-78 280 Z cars are slightly beefier in structure, have better drivability and reliability with fuel injection instead of carbs, and are by definition newer with fewer miles on the clock.
Some of the second generation cars (280 ZX) had luxury options like power windows and locks, and some were available with turborcharged engines...a potent option worth seeking. All were structurally similar.
Rust? We don't worry much about it in Arizona and I occasionally have a donor car or two in the "stable." If I don't have one that fits your needs, I can assist you with finding a local donor car as well as shipping it to your area. However, please recognize that the process of searching for a good donor requires a fair amount of work and a lot of knowledge. I don't mind helping if you don't mind compensating me fairly for my time and my experience (gained from years of brain damage:). I can assure you it will be worth the cost! Also, please be aware that I cannot begin searching until you are serious enough about your project to warrant a deposit.
Title transfers can be done here, which will give you an Arizona title in your name. That will make transporting the car, and eventually registering it in your home state easier.
If this is not an option for you, then make sure you evaluate your prospective donor car thoroughly for rust and collision damage. A little rust in the floor pans is usually not a big problem and can be repaired pretty easily. However, it also usually indicates that there is rust in other spots you won't see until you have stripped the car. By then it's too late to get your money back from the seller!
The stiffening “frame rails” underneath floor pans are relatively important. They are not really part of a frame, but just sheet metal boxes. These tend to get beat up pretty badly by rocks and grease monkeys that try to jack the car up there, but “dented” is not nearly as bad as “rusted.”
The area under the battery is almost always going to have some rust, but you don’t want big holes or crumbly cancer. The “frame rails” on either side of the engine bay should be free of buckling that would indicate collision damage…though some models are shaped in a non-linear fashion that may look suspicious to the untrained eye. Just make sure they look the same and opposite. That is if one looks like it is bent inward the other should be bent inward, too. Not bent the same direction which might indicate the car T-boned another, moving car.
Front fenders and other front sheet metal are not important. However, the inner wheel wells are part of the unibody and should be as good as possible. The bracket where the tension-compression rod attaches to the frame should be intact.
If you live in the rust belt, you may find that the availability of good donors is so poor and the cost of repairing the bad ones so high that you will want to make a trip out to Sunny Arizona to have us help you find a good donor!
Consult the Velo Rossa installation manual for more information on rust inspection.
Will any of these kits fit Right Hand Drive donor cars? YES! They will all fit RHD cars. Only the Velo Rossa needs very slight modification at the base of the windshield to accommodate the wipers, which are reversed on the RHD cars.
I am not accepting orders for turnkey cars at the moment.With all the confusion and turmoil of 2002, having sold the business and now having taken it back, it's all I can do to rebuild the business and fulfill the orders I continue to receive.
However, I will discuss a turnkey or partial assembly, provided you are serious about it (i.e., you have the money and are recognize that my time and experience are worth that money).
No, I won't build you a car for the same price as the one you saw on eBay. I also won't fix that one for you any cheaper when you get it and find out it's worth about half what you paid for it! Turnkey work is very serious, time consuming, and logistically very challenging, all of which are exaggerated when the customer and builder are geographically separated.
Title, Registration, and Insurance
In many states if you are starting with an out of state title, the motor vehicle folks will want to see the car and verify the Vehicle Identification Number before issuing a new title. Therefore, you can title and register your car as a Datsun if you do the title transfer before you begin the conversion process. If you drag or drive your car down there with a different body on it, you will likely get a Specially Constructed Vehicle (that's what they call them in Arizona, your jurisdiction may be different) title.
An SCV title can actually be helpful. For example, if you get pulled over by the constabulary you will not have to explain why your Italian sports car is registered as a Datsun! Usually SCV titles reflect both the donor car and what it's supposed to resemble, e.g., 1962 F****ri GTO/Datsun 280Z. However, it is possible to have them list only the first part. Just be careful about false advertising when you sell the car!
Insurance companies are more concerned about the running gear of the car and what it will cost to fix (if you want collision coverage as opposed to just liability). Therefore, insuring as a Datsun (provided you have not done an engine swap) will give them an accurate idea of the performance capability of the car, which in turn tells them how much of a risk it is to other peoples' property!
For collision coverage (i.e., fix YOUR car if you damage it), the insurance company wants to know what it's worth and what it will cost to fix. Insuring it as a Datsun is a sure fire way to have the insurance company total it with anything more than about $1000 worth of coverage. Many companies will do a "stated value" policy. This requires either documentation of build cost, or appraisal of value, or both. Your premiums will be proportional to this value.
The Z is a unibody car. That is to say, the body is the structure, without a separate frame underneath. The roof is part of that structure. If you choose one of our roadster conversions or topless rebody kits, you need to reinforce the chassis.
I sell a clean, all-in-the-cockpit reinforcing kit. This is a minimum level kit and if you driving style or engine power dictates, you will want to consider more extensive reinforcing.
Should you reinforce before or after removing the roof? I find it easier to do afterward, because it is a lot easier to move around inside the car without the roof in the way. Yes, the car may sag a little when you remove the roof. This is the main reason most folks want to reinforce before roof removal. However, if you remove the roof first it is very easy to put a floor jack under the pan to "un-sag" the car while you weld in the reinforcing.
One caveat, though: Particularly in the area around the top of the windshield, there seems to be some residual high-gravity effect that will attract your scalp to the rough edges where you removed the roof. I'd recommed you at least rough-install the header cap after removing the roof and before beginning work inside the car. Voice of experience...too many times to count.
Consult the Velo Rossa installation manual for more reinforcing information.
The Velo Rossa was designed to be roadster, that is with no top. However, I and others have fitted tops to Velo Rossas. "One of these days" I hope to have time to design a really nice top for the VR. In the meantime, I am offering a removeable hardtop shell that you can finish yourself with seals, latches, and rear window. I'm selling the shells for my cost as a service to the buyers who need them.
There have been VR customers who have adapted TR7 tops, MGB tops and some others. However, it's not as straightforward as it might seem. Not only does the header bow have to be reconfigured to meet the sweeping curve of the top of the Z windshield, the opening around the window of the Z has to be different.
I can help out with other options if you really need a top and that is an obstacle to building a kit. Contact me for the latest information.
Building a Hardtop VR
If you prefer the coupe look of the original GTO, are located in a climate that favors hardtop cars, or you just don't like convertibles, I can supply the kit tailored so that you can install it without removing the roof. I have a line scribed in the mold where I terminate the layup for this purpose. With this termination, the rear tub drops down over the Datsun roof and rests on the rear quarters. Slight trimming is required for best fit, but it is much easier to trim to exact fit than have to add material.
You will have to do a little hand fabrication around the rear of the hatch opening, and around the quarter windows. The original GTO did not have quarter windows, and many of the early GTO replica kits incorporated a vertical extension of the tub to cover the Datsun window. Many builders chose instead to remove the quarter window and fabricate a metal panel to be welded in place. My preference (and the reason Datsun designed the quarter window) is to leave it open for visibility. It's a small area, but makes a big difference. Without it, I feel claustrophobic.
If, like me, you want to retain the quarter window, you will have to do a little bit of hand fabrication with foam and fiberglass to create the radius from the top of the quarter panel area into the quarter window well. I have a handful of builders who have done this, and can supply photos and additional information for clarification if need be.
Engine Upgrades and Swaps
I recommend doing your body installation before you do any engine swapping. Since the finished car will be lighter than the donor you started with, I think you will find that the performance of the car will improve significantly. Plus, the inline 6 engine revs very nicely like a sports car should, and with the right exhaust it sounds like it should, too.
However, if you get that far and decide that it's just not enough, having already done the body conversion will still be beneficial. Particularly with complete body kits, having the front end sheet metal out of your way makes the engine swap a lot easier. In the case of the Velo Rossa, the one-piece bonnet is extremely easy to remove and get out of your way for engine work.
There is a lot of knowledge and there are a lot of differing opinions in the Z community in the area of engine work. Avail yourself of the information you can find at www.hybridz.org, www.zdriver.com, www.zcar.com, etc.
Engine upgrades can include anything from readily available headers and cams, to head swapping and complete engine rebuilds. Rebello has an excellent engine rebuild program. They are expensive, but numerous racing titles have proven their worth.
Engine swaps with other Datsun models are done frequently. One of the more straightforward is substituting a turbocharged engine for a normally aspirated model. The first and second generation Z engines are physically almost identical so a swap is not particulary challenging. Other Z enthusiasts have substituted extremely high performance four cylinder engines for both gain in power and reduction in weight. Third (1984-1989, single overhead cam) and fourth generation (1989-1996 dual overhead cam) Z V6 engines make good swaps. I have even seen Infinity aluminum V8 engines installed with very clean results.
The small-block Chevy is the most common engine swap for the Datsun. It fits very nicely in the engine bay, provides a tremendous increase in torque, and parts are readily available. It typically adds a small amount of weight to the car and requires attention to the fore-and-aft position to minimize disturbing the balance of the car by making it nose heavy. I recommend the Jags that Run book for the most complete information on doing this swap.
I personally like the look of the 4.3 Vortech V6. It’s the same bore and stroke a small-block, but lighter even than the Z engine. Very compact and good rearward position of center of mass.
There have been a few Z guys who have used the 3.8 liter, narrow angle V6 Buick Grand National turbo engine.
Small-block Ford engines have also been used. There are some advantages including a distributor position which allows the engine to sit farther aft in the engine bay, lighter weight, etc. However, Ford parts are typically a little more expensive and fewer of these swaps have been done. Therefore the knowledge base is not as strong as with the Chevy. Regardless of all that, there are a few diehard Ford guys who swear by that engine for transplanting into the Z.
I have also seen Mazda rotary engines installed in the Datsun. The Mazda is a strange little beast of a motor. It is available in turbocharged versions, revs very smoothly to high rpm, makes a wicked sound, and is extremely compact and light. Parts and knowledge are not as readily available as with some of the other engine swaps. However, with proper care and feeding (good oil and good gas) they last a LONG time. In the Mazda spec racing series engines can last several seasons without a rebuild.
Emissions restrictions are a sticky point on engine swaps. Requirements vary from location to location, however, the most restrictive is in California. In essense, the year of the car from which your engine was obtained will dictate the emissions standards you have to meet. Therefore, many engine swappers get older engines (pre-67 as I recall) from the wreckyards. However, you need to check requirements in your state and county before you do a swap. I strongly suggest that you review the extensive information to be found at www.HybridZ.com and in the Jags that Run V8 Z book that I sell.
I would strongly recommend AGAINST a Jag motor. There have
been a lot of guys who've made a lot of money doing small block Chevy conversions
on Jags. There are good reasons for that! 'Nuff said.
I use two methods of fiberglass production: Spray lamination ("chopper gun" or "slobber gun" as one of my customers humorously calls it) and hand lamination. All prices listed on this website are for spray lamination. Hand lamination is about 15% more expensive.
"What's the difference?" Spray lamination is a process whereby long, continuous strands of fiber, or "tow," are fed through a spray gun that chops the strands into two- or three-inch long pieces, wets them with resin and catalyst, and blows them onto the surface of the mold. It is a bit like spray painting.
Chopper gun production can actually result in pretty nice parts. The quality is highly dependent upon the experience of the operator and the care with which he handles the gun. The key is controlling resin-to-fiber ratio and uniformity of thickness (i.e., not holding the gun over some areas longer than others).
Hand lamination starts with dry fabric. It can be woven or non-woven. Woven fabric looks just like cloth but tends to be thinner. Non-woven fabric looks like spray laminated fiberglass, but is very consistent in its thickness. The laminator (or "fiberglass guy") cuts the fabric off a roll, wets it with resin (which he has mixed with catalyst in a bucket), and lays it into the mold by hand.
Regardless of how the fiber and resin get into the mold (by gun or by hand), the laminator rolls the material out by hand, forcing out air bubbles and increasing the strength of the final part.
Generally, hand-laminated parts are going to be slightly denser and stronger than a chopped part of equivalent weight (or, conversely they can be made ligher for an equivalent strength). This is more important as you get into thinner parts, like for racing applications.
I strongly recommend hand lamination for all parts, but especially for parts that will be bolted onto your car, for example front fenders (as opposed to rear quarter panels which are bonded on). I also recommend hand lamination for any parts that are installed in such a way that the underside may be seen, for example your hood.
I prefer white gel coat, but can do other colors for small additional cost. I think it was $200 extra last time I did a color change, and that's just the cost difference of the gel coat.
White gel coat also makes your new parts look more finished right out of the box. That way, there's more "gee whiz" when people see it in the garage. It also makes it more tolerable to the spouse when he or she has to park his or her car in the driveway because your project is in the garage.
When you get ready to paint, you will find that best results come from contrasting subsequent layers. It's easier to see what you've covered, and when you sand back down into the previous layer. For example, I like camel colored primer on top of the white gel coat. Then if you do red paint over that you can see the coverage. Plus, a lot of the colors-especially red-that people like to use on these cars are somewhat translucent. Therefore, the final color will be brightest with lighter layers beneath. Painter's nightmare would be gray gel coat, gray primer, and gray paint.
Demo cars, Shop visits
When I sold the business in 2002, I sold separately my shop building because I didn't think I would need it any longer. Now that I have the business back I am operating out of my vendors' facilities temporarily while I put together a new facility.
So, I don't have a fancy showroom or fabrication shop where I can give you a dog and pony show. Nor do I have any complete cars on hand in which I can take you for a test drive. The positive side of both is that my overhead is now lower and I can continue to offer the same low prices I've had for the last ten years!
However, if you are serious about purchasing a kit (i.e., you have the money and are willing to spend it, etc.) and need to see one to help you make that decision, I can make arrangements to meet with you and help you with those assessments. PLEASE, contact me well before you are driving into the Phoenix city limits. I am EXTREMELY busy, and I travel a lot on business.
So, if you contact me well in advance of your visit I will be more likely to be able to meet with you. I don't mind if you wait until the last minute as long as you understand when I tell you I already have 14 hours of work scheduled that day! And if your plans change after I have already altered mine to meet with you, please do me the courtesy of letting me know as soon as possible. The only thing worse than having someone "drop in" without prior notice, or rearranging my already impossible schedule for someone who doesn't show up, is a noshow who doesn't even bother to let me know s/he is not coming!.
There is a local (Phoenix) builder who has his car for sale and who has shown it to prospective purchasers in the past. There are also many builders across the country who don't mind sharing their time with serious prospective purchasers. Please see the next section about that.
I am very careful to safeguard my customer’s contact info because of bad experience. I have found that if I’m too liberal with that information, they get deluged with annoyance requests for information from people who are not really serious about purchasing anything. That is one reason I ask you to help me gauge how serious you are about purchasing.
If you have specific questions about a given kit and you have not found the answers here or in the installation manual, tell me what information that you need and I will be happy to check my archives. If you have seen a customer's car in one of my galleries and have specific questions, I may have archived information on it. As a last resort I will forward the questions to the owner.
If you are ready to purchase, i.e., you have the money and are ready to write the check, and you would like to see a car before you place your order, I will try to accommodate. I will check to see if I have a customer in your area and get their permission to put you in touch with them.
I not trying to be deceptive or stubborn, but I am a BIG believer in courtesy AND privacy. My customers have shown great trust in me when they purchased their kits and/or parts. I very much value--and don’t want to violate--that trust. I’m sure you will appreciate this policy when/if you become a customer, because I will afford you the same courtesy.
Dealer Programs and Sponsorships
If you build and sell cars for a living, or even as a serious hobby, I am happy to talk to you about building one of mine. Keep in mind that the idea behind a dealer program is for the transaction to be profitable for both of us. Therefore, I want to be able to sell more kits with less time involved.
If you are a hobbyiest and want to save some money, I can discuss with you "manufacturer's representative" status, through which you will enjoy significant tax benefits, and commissions for showing your car to other prospective purchasers.
However, if you only want one kit you may want to consider getting together with another prospective customer in your area and ordering both kits together. The savings in crating and shipping can be substantial! See Ganging Customer Shipments, below, for more information.
These caveats and recommendations also apply to sponsorships. My involvement in sponsorships has been very limited in the past. At the present time, with all the turmoil of the past year, the cash flow of the business does not permit me to be too cavalier with the revenue. Therefore, I would be glad to review sponsorship proposal packages from serious racers or builders. However, in order to justify it I need information to be able to project pretty concrete sales numbers that will result.
Lead-time is 5-10 working days depending upon exactly what you want and other orders I may have pending. A deposit sent before you arrive (if you are picking up your kit) or well before you would like to receive it will ensure that I have everything ready for you, and then we can COD the balance.
Shipping on fiberglass items via motor freight can take 5 or more working days, depending upon your location and distance from the nearest major truck terminal.
For larger shipments and complete kits, I use a professional crating service. You pay only what they charge me and when you receive your shipment you will better appreciate the cost of professional crating, the work that went into it, and the protection it provides.
Crating for body parts runs from $60 to $295 depending upon the items ordered. Hoods and quarter panels may be shipped in reclaimed packaging in order to save you the cost of custom crating. In this case the crating or packaging charge reflects the time and expense required to obtain the packaging and properly pack your order.
Catalogs, books, and posters are mailed via US Postal Service at "printed matter" rates, unless higher levels of service are indicated on the price list and/or ordering info. Priority mail, second day, and next day service are available at extra cost. I'm sorry that I cannot do COD on small items unless you have a UPS or Fed Ex account and I can ship it to you on your account.
Hardware items can usually either be shipped via USPS, UPS, or FedEx Ground. Customers must pay for shipping and any expedited service required. Charges for packaging may apply for certain bulky or hard to package items.
Almost all fiberglass parts must be shipped motor freight due to size restrictions with UPS, FedEx Ground, etc.
For least expensive shipping, you need a business location with loading dock to receive your order. On shipments greater than 100 pounds actual weight you will be charged extra if you do not have a loading dock or a forklift; because the carrier will have to use a liftgate truck. The carriers also charge extra for inside delivery (that is, they have to bring it inside building) or if it is delivered to a residence.
If you live outside a major metropolitan area, you may also see "beyond charges." These can be shockingly high, and the farther from the truck terminal you are the higher the charge.
If you live in a rural area, or if you do not have an appropriately configured business receiving address, it may be better to instruct the carrier to "hold at terminal". You can pick it up from there in a pickup truck. If it's a large crate (like for a complete Velo Rossa body kit), the terminal may allow you to (and may even assist you) unpack the crate and load the parts piece-at-a-time. A six-pack of your favorite beverage will go a long ways in getting assistance!
Prepaying your shipping will also help you avoid "freight collect charges." In order for me to include shipping in your total, I will need your:
I can ship your order "cash on delivery" (COD), if you have not yet paid the remaining balance due. However, carrier COD charge of $100 (minimum and may be more) will be applied to your total due.
Regardless of how your order is shipped and or the shipping and COD are paid, someone must be at your shipping address to sign for the shipment, take delivery, and pay freight or COD fees. If no one is there and the driver has to make a second trip, the carrier will charge you more. I know this may be inconvenient, but I do not have any control over it. That's the way the motorfreight world works, unfortunately.
Please remember that shipping quotes take a lot of time to put together and if you aren't ready to actually purchase the parts shipping prices will have changed by the time you are ready. I can give you a rough idea without doing a quote, but this estimate is subject to change based on fuel costs, weather, and other costs beyond the control of the carrier.
You are welcome to arrange your own shipping if you have access to an inexpensive service, or your company has a significant inbound freight discount. However, please do so as early in the ordering process as possible (I will provide you with dimensions and pickup address that you will need) so that it leaves the dock quickly after it's crated. Once it's in the box, it's a pain in the posterior to move out of the way every couple of hours! The crating shop charges storage on any crates left on the dock more than two days after they are ready to ship.
I make every effort to keep shipping cost to a minimum. However, fiberglass items are bulky compared to typical motor freight. As such, the shipping companies charge for what they call "dimensional weight." That is, when the volume of your crate or large box exceeds what they would normally expect of such an item, they charge based on the volume that a occupies rather than actual weight. It's only fair since light items displace heavier, more conventional, and more profitable freight.
To combat this problem, I have suffered many hours of brain damage to discover the best ways to crate, protect, and nest parts so that they occupy the smallest possible volume.
I have never had anything damaged in shipping. Having said that, however, there's always a first time for everything! When you receive your kit or parts, please look over the box or crate immediately; preferably before you sign for it. If there is obvious damage to the packaging you need to point this out to the driver and make him acknowledge it in writing. If you don't feel completely comfortable accepting shipment with potential damage, just refuse it and call me.
Damage claims usually have to be initiated from the shipper's end. However, if you don't exercise your responsibility to catch it promptly on your end and let me know, you could compromise my ability to help you.
I have not yet shipped any kits outside the continental United States. However, I have several times done quotes for shipping outside the U.S. and I would be happy to do so for you if need be. Please realize, though, that such quotes are very time consuming and very much subject to fluctuation depending upon fuel costs, and other factors. So, for the benefit of both of us, make sure you are ready to purchase and have a definite idea of when you want to receive shipment before you ask me to calculate a shipping quote.
Also, there is no way for me to know what kind of customs requirements and import taxes will need to be fulfilled at the country of origin. Since presumably that is where you live, it would help me out tremendously if you could investigate those requirements on your end and before I do a shipping quote.
In the past, I have quoted motor freight to a U.S. port, and ocean freight from the U.S. to the destination country. Motor freight from the destination port to the final destination is possible, but adds considerably to the cost. If it is at all possible for you to pick up your kit at the port, I would recommend that.
Air freight is also a possibility for international shipments, but usually at least doubles the cost of shipping. For individual parts or even fender kits this is not too bad. However, because of the size of complete body kits, air freight can be prohibitive.
I have spoken with several parties about becoming dealers in Australia, Asia, and Europe. So far none have been serious enough to proceed, but I welcome such inquiries. Shipping to a dealer in quantity is much less expensive, since I can load up a whole container full of kits for the same price as shipping two or three.
When I sold the business in 2002, I cancelled my credit card processing account. Because of the paperwork required and the transaction costs that have to be passed along to the customer, I have not yet decided to reinstate that capability. Therefore, I currently accept only payment by mail (or in person should you desire to pick your parts up locally). Personal checks are fine, as are company checks and money orders. I can also arrange for wire transfer.
If you are reluctant to mail money to a stranger, I completely understand. You are welcome to post an inquiry to the Kitcar section at www.hybridz.org. Many of the folks there have ordered parts from me and will give me a good reference.
I have been in business more than a decade. You can't be in business that long without having at least two or three people mad no matter what you do to try to make things right. However, the vast majority of my customers have been pleased with my products and my service, and I think you will be, too!
I am also willing and able to accept payment via Paypal (www.PayPal.com), as long as you are willing to bear the small additional cost of such transactions. PayPal is a service that utilizes email addresses to designate accounts.
Once you go through the simple sign-up procedure (https://www.paypal.com/cgi-bin/webscr?cmd=_registration-run), you can use your credit card to initiate a PayPal payment to me at email@example.com. At that point your transaction proceeds as simply as any other online credit card transaction. I am a verified member in good standing with PayPal.
If you have questions about PayPal or need assistance, please let me know via the email address below.
I can ship parts orders "Cash on Delivery," as long as I can receive a deposit up front that is large enough to cover the cost of crating and shipping both ways should you change your mind when the delivery truck is sitting in your driveway. Bear in mind that most shippers charge a small additional amount ($50 or so) for COD fees.
Lay-a-way plans are acceptable as well. With at least 25% up front, I can either fabricate your parts and hold them for you, or hold the funds until you are ready to take delivery and pay off your order.
My address information is at the bottom of the FAQs.
Ganging customer shipments
If you and a friend want to purchase more than one kit at at time, you can save substantially on crating and shipping cost by crating them together. Alternatively, I can check to see if there are other prospective customers in your area who would be willing to split shipping cost with you and receive their kit at the same time. Sometimes the few hundred bucks this saves is enough of an incentive to warrant an immediate purchase!
Why is it cheaper? If you've read Shipping, above, you know about dimensional weight. I can nest two or more kits together in a volume not much greater than one buy itself, effectively reducing the cost of crating AND shipping per kit almost in half.
Delivery to Shows or other gatherings
I have attended the Knott's Berry Farm kit car show at the end of April every year for the last several. I have frequently brought kits with me for customers who have purchased them in advance, and am willing to do this at minimal cost (whatever extra it costs me to upgrade to the next size truck, extra gas, etc.).
However, if you want to take advantage of this opportunity, you need to let me know well before the show. It takes time to fabricate a kit, and it takes time to make arrangements to transport it, to load it and secure it properly, etc.
Please make sure you bring tie-downs, blankets, and an appropriate vehicle (virtually any pickup will do).
I rarely attend other shows (like Carlisle) because of the distance and expense involved. There just isn't enough money in this business for me to justify it. However, under special circumstances I may consider such a trip. If I need to go that way anyway, if I can arrange to deliver a kit or two along the way, or if you and a friend want to take delivery of two kits at one time, I'll work with you.
Shipping donor cars, turnkey cars, or partial turnkey cars
Shipping a complete car is a tricky proposition. There are transporters who will go coast to coast for around $1000, but I don't have anyone I work with on a regular basis. However, I will be happy to investigate to assist a serious buyer.
If the car you want to transport does not run, you can expect to pay extra. In that circumstance, the driver has to reconfigure his load so that he doesn't have to move your car until he gets to you, and so that nothing is behind your car when he does. Plus, he has to have help to load the car in the first place, and potentially to unload it.
You are welcome to pick up your car and transport it yourself. I do not recommend planning to fly in and drive your car home. I wouldn't do it...and I'm pretty good at roadside repairs. I've even fixed cars with chewing gum wrappers!
If you want to pick up a donor car, etc., yourself, consider renting a truck large enough to put the car inside. The rental companies don't like to do this, but I have some local guys who will work with us.
Picking up your kit in Phoenix
You are welcome to pick up your kit or parts in Phoenix and save substantially on crating and shipping. For a full kit (like the VR) you will need at least a pick up truck. Bring moving blankets or old towels for padding, and at least four motorcycle-type tiedown straps (ratcheting or not).
I will help you load the kit properly and securely to minimize risk of damage...but it will cost you lunch! Also, please realize that while I do the best I can based on years of experience, there is still risk of damage from transporting an uncrated kit in this manner. Drive carefully, stop frequently to check the security of the load (give yourself a break while you are at it), and set reasonable goals for travel time.
Whatever you do, please be as prepared as possible. I've had customers show up with no tie down straps and ask to borrow mine (want to bet on whether I got them back?), and even had people show up in vehicles that needed repair before they could leave!
Also, if you are planning on "Cash and Carry," PLEASE make arrangements well in advance. The majority of the parts I sell are made to order, when you order. That saves you the overhead associated with keeping two of everything in inventory, rent for the space required to keep them in stock, etc. I will be very happy to have everything ready for you to pick up, if you will do me the courtesy of ordering in advance and telling me EXACTLY what you want so it will meet your expectations. My telepathy is getting a little rusty in my old age!
Just like with orders that I ship, a deposit is required before I can build anything for you so that I don't have to be "out of pocket" to my vendors, or stuck with something about which you changed your mind on a whim. Yes, I can resell it. If you don't mind waiting until I do so, I don't mind refunding your money (minus a very reasonable restock fee) if your plans change.
For cash and carry (with emphasis on the "cash"), please make sure you arrive with sufficient funds in your pocket. It is much better if you go to the bank on the way to see me rather than having me escort you there. It will also save you from having to buy me lunch for my trouble:)
Wheels and Tires
The original sizes that I used to sell for the Velo Rossa were 15x8 in the front and 15x10 in the back, both with 3-7/16 backspace (from the hub seating surface of the wheel to the inner lip), 4x4.5 bolt pattern.I also used to sell a wire wheel package that was 8” wide front and rear, with the rear backspacing adjusted to about 2 inches to push the wheel out and fill out the wheel well. These dimensions are pretty typical for rear-wheel-drive applications, unlike the more modern FWD (front-wheel-drive) backspacings of 4 inches and larger.
However, RWD wheels--particularly in the four-bolt patterns--are scarce these days. Wheel manufacturers have abandoned the niche markets like the Z and are focusing on the modern compact FWD cars. The 15x10 wheels are pretty much not made any more, except for custom-built wheels…very expensive. Ditto the wires. The previous owners of VR depleted my inventory of wires and I can no longer get the parts to assemble the wire wheels.
What I’ve been recommending lately is hub extenders. For $149/pair, I sell some that bolt onto your car and allow you to use any modern front wheel drive, four-bolt wheel. They are a lot less expensive than custom wheels. In fact, even considering the cost of the hub extenders, the total cost is a lot less. Also, you are no longer restricted to 15” diameter, and the number of wheel styles to choose from is virtually unlimited.
The fronts are typically an inch thick, and the rears are three inches. Those numbers allow for 8” front wheel drive wheels at both ends of the car. If you are doing a V8 swap or some other high horsepower application and need wider rear wheels, I can reduce the thickness of the rear hub extender to accommodate. I just need to know the width and backspace (not offset) of the wheel you intend to use. Backspace is the distance from the hub-seating surface of the wheel to the inner lip of the wheel.
I have heard of “wheel spacers” sold for a little less money. However, I have never actually seen them and don’t know much about them. I’ve had good success with my hub extenders, though, and would strongly recommend them.
Yes, you may be able to custom order wire wheels and maybe with real knock-offs, too. Trust me (I've put a lot of research into this and will be happy to buy you lunch if you prove me wrong), they are a) VERY expensive, and b) they are a pain in the posterior.
Prices run $300/wheel and up, depending on brand. The knock-offs are heavy, complicated, add one more interface for eccentricity to show up (which rears its ugly head as an "imbalance" you can't fix by balancing), and you have to whang the heck out of the knock offs to get them loose, with associated risk to the rim and the bodywork around it.
Trust me (I say for the second and final time) you will be much better off in price, simplicity, and weight with hub extenders and inexpensive wire (or whatever) wheels with a Honda bolt pattern that you can buy anywhere.
I strongly recommend that you NOT buy tires in advance. Once your body work is in place and the suspension is finalized, take the car, wheels, and hub extenders to a reputable tire shop that is willing to work with you. Have them mount everything up, check for rubbing, etc. That way if something doesn't work they can fix it. If you bought the wrong size tire in advance and it takes you a year to put your car together after which you discover they won't fit, whoever you bought them from is not going to take them back or trade them in.
I do NOT sell Fe**ari badges or emblems, nor do I recommend that you install them on anything you buy from me. I can't stop you from doing it (neither than anyone else, provided you aren't mass producing badged vehicles), but I also can't legally encourage or assist you in doing so.
I do provide Velo Rossa badges and decals at no cost to kit purchasers who desire them.
Other Parts and Hardware...what you need to complete a Velo Rossa
The Velo Rossa kit comes with all the fiberglass required to completely reskin the car. It includes the hardware necessary to mount and hinge the front bonnet. I designed the Velo Rossa to take advantage of as many hardware items off your donor car as possible. Mechanically, you will reuse most of the car, including the headlight buckets, door handles, the entire drivetrain (unless you are doing a swap), all the interior pieces, etc.
You can buy carpet kits and seat cover kits, but I find it almost as cost effective to have these items redone by a local upholstery shop. The added bonus is you can get them done just the way you like them.
The fiberglass is designed to accept generic hardware in the areas where something other than from the donor is required. Examples include the trunk hinges: I like Mazda RX-7 hatch hinges but there are a variety of others that will work, since the holes are not predrilled in the fiberglass. All these items can be obtained from the junkyard, the autoparts store, or the hardware store. Suggestions and options for all these items are listed in the installation manual.
Of course, there are many aftermarket and performance parts available for the stock Z that will work just fine on a VR or any of our other kits. These include suspension, brakes, engine parts, seats, etc. Links to other suppliers are listed in the installation manual.
The only two items of hardware that you need to get from me (if you want them) are the headlight covers and the driving lights. I make both of these specifically to fit the Velo Rossa, and it would be difficult to adapt parts from other cars to this application. See the Price List to order.
Headlight cover trim rings are one of the items I eliminated from the kit for cost reasons. I can still get them made but they are about $600/pair. I can also get front grills made but they are about $1500 each.
Beyond those, you can save yourself a lot of money and enjoy the benefits of customizing your car if you source hardware items yourself.
Of course, if you don't want to source the parts yourself, I can supply anything referenced in the installation manual at the prices listed there. If you want a quote on additional parts, please supply me with exactly which parts you'd like and the selections within those (i.e., Mazda hinges vs. Ford, etc.).
Dash Conversions. I offer two dash conversion for the Z (some ZX customers have adapted them). You can see more information on these dashes at
The Velo Rossa is designed to run without bumpers, just like the original GTO. The Daytona can be run "competition style" without bumpers, or with the bumperettes like on the street Daytonas.
The other kits can be run with or without bumpers. Whether it is legal to run a street car without bumpers in your locale is up to you to determine. Generally, though, it's only an issue at time of registration if/when you have to have the vehicle inspected. I've never seen a ticket issued for lack of bumpers...not to say that you absolutely WON'T get one, but I think it's a long shot. Most reasonable folks I know see bumpers as being for the protection of YOUR vehicle. If you don't care, why should they?
I do offer, but have yet to post to the website, fiberglass bumpers in both 240 style and late 280 (1977-1978). I have plans to also make molds for the early 280 (75-76) which I think look a little less clunky than the late bumpers...though a lot of folks like them. If you are interested in this option, please contact me via the information below and I will work up a price for you.
Adjusting suspension ride height on a Z or Z-based car.
1. Sectioning the struts really is essential. This involves cutting a section out of the body of the strut tube (usually about 1.5 inches) and welding the tube back together. Without it you simply can't lower the car enough without getting down to desired ride height and still have reasonable suspension travel.
2. With shorter strut tubes, you have to run a shorter cartridge. 300ZX (third gen) shocks are not only shorter by about 1.5", but they also have the same threaded piston rod (upper end) as the first gen cars. Therefore, you can use them without modifying the strut insulator (top hat). With the VW GTI struts (a common solution in the past) you have to drill out the insulators to accommodate the larger piston rod. It can be a pain to do so, plus it makes it more difficult to tighten or loosen the top nut. The GTI piston has a round threaded section, whereas the Z has a "D" shape that prevents the piston rod from rotating.
3. Coilovers are the way to go. I had some made locally but it was a pain; so much so that I'd recommend Ground Control in spite of the expense. I'd be interested to hear what others are using in this area. Coilovers will give you adjustability in ride height that will help you trim out the rake of the car just the way you want it. They will also allow for more clearance to the inside of the wheels, allowing you to fit a wider wheel and tire under the fender.
4. While you have everything apart, drop the cross member and relocate the inner pivot point per the JTR Z V8 book. This will eliminate the annoying bumpsteer that was built into the Z to help compensate for overly soft suspension. What's bumpsteer? The annoying tendency of the car to follow the ruts in the road or pull to the side of a bump if you only hit it on one side. It's due to the tie-rod arm and control arm not being parallel. Re-locating the pivot point will cure it.
If you have trouble visualizing why parallelism between these two components is important, try this simple exercise. With your car sitting on the ground and "rolled out" (roll it forward and backward a foot or two so the suspension can settle, making the last roll forward to simulate the car moving forward on the road) sight down the outer sides of the front tires toward the rear tires. If your toe-in is properly set in the front, you should be able to see a tiny bit of the back edge of the front tires. This would be a slight toe-in. Hopefully, the steering wheel is straight up and down when both front tires point in very slightly (a degree or so).
Now jack the car up and watch for the change in toe-in. This simulates full "droop." You get an opposite change when the car is bump loaded on one side like when running over an asymmetric (only on one side of the car) bump.
5. Install "bump steer spacers." Why the quotes? That's not really what they are, but it's what everyone calls them. They are spacers that go between the bottom of the strut and the ball joint. What are they really? "Camber curve correctors." My term. Copyrighted. Use it and you have to pay me:)
In essence, when the suspension height is stock the ball joint translates outboard with increasing bump load. This makes the camber more negative, i.e., the top of the wheel leans more toward the center of the car. The more negative the camber, the better the bite from the tire, which is exactly what you want when you load that side (the side on the outside of the turn).
As you apply increasing load to the suspension, the control arm goes from a normal drooping (toward the outboard side), to horizontal and eventually above horizontal. When this happens, the ball joint starts coming back toward the centerline of the car, decreasing camber and causing the front of the car to "wash out" (understeer) in hard corners and especially under braking (which transfers more load toward that critical outboard tire).
So, if you graph (I'm the self appointed king of analogies and visual aids) the camber versus loading, you see the camber start out at some negative value, go through zero (corresponding with horizontal control arm position) and start to become positive again.
When driving a stock Z under normal conditions you'd never get it loaded far enough to get the control arm significantly above horizontal. However, when the car has been lowered the entire "camber curve" from the above referenced graph is artificially shifted toward the positive camber area.
That is to say the closer you start out to horizontal on the control arm the easier it is to get into the wrong part of the curve. Imagine that if you started out with the control arm exactly horizontal, it would only take a minute amount of loading to start decreasing the camber.
The camber curve correcting spacers push the control arm back to something more like a stock location, and therefore depress the camber gain curve back into a more desirable region.
"How come I've never heard of this before, and why don't the racers do this?" I've heard that question, too. The answer is that most of them run such stiff springs and shocks that you don't have much movement on the camber curve. In essence the camber becomes fixed. The downside is loss of that all important suspension travel and its friend "ride quality." In a racecar, neither is that important.
I have some really nice billet CCCs that I never properly marketed. I sell them for $50/pair.
Another excellent question courtesy of Chris Larson: Do you need to do both the inner pivot relocation AND the camber curve correctors? Short answer: Yes. Long answer: The camber curve correctors move the ball joint down, in turn moving the control arm down. Unfortunately, they also move the outer tie rod end down which brings the tie rod down as well. This preserves the undesired un-parallel relationship between the tie rod and the control arm.
Here are some links to excellent discussions about this topic (when page opens, select Ctrl-F "bump"):
Rear Suspension. At the rear of the car, you will not experience the same bump steer phenomenon, because there is no steering. Technically, however, the camber curve displacement does occur. You normally would not notice it, though, because Zs seem fairly insensitive to camber change in the rear.
As for ride height, coilover suspension is the ideal way to acheive desired height. However, you can get the car down quite a bit with lowering springs (usually about 1 to 1.5 inches). If you are starting with a 280 Z (75-78) you can gain another inch or so by swapping the "top hats" or strut insulators at the top of the strut. On these cars they are about an inch taller in the rear than in the front. You can also use parts from front or rear of an earlier car (240), since they are the same as on front of the 280s.
Also: Some parenthetical comments: While you have everything apart, it's a good idea to do the suspension bushings. The steering rack in particular can cause irritating mystery problems that you won't figure out until you have a friend turn your steering wheel while you watch the rack move back and forth 1/4 inch relative to its mounts...or until you listen to me and just do it :wink:
You may as well change out the brakes at this time, too. The JTR-suggested Toyota 4-piston conversion is a pretty good one. I think I have one of those in a box here somewhere I'd make someone a deal on.
It's a little heavy compared to "real brakes." I hate to admit it and many of you probably hate to hear it, but our good friend at "the other Z place in Arizona" may have the best setup for that. If you just can't stand him so badly that you wouldn't buy a $20 bill from him for $10, let me know. I may have some inroads to some alternate sources, but don't have the time to invest in exploration without pretty promising prospects of selling some.
Be very conscious of the bottom of your car. There should be nothing hanging out below the "frame rails." This becomes even more critical with decreasing ground clearance (duh), but you'd be surprised how many aftermarket headers dump out an inch below the frame rails. I call these headers "speed bump feelers." Make sure whoever does your exhaust work from that point back understands the concept as well. This is especially important with V8 cars.
Not only will this stuff drag, scrape off that pretty JetHot coating, and tear up the exhaust, it will also loosen your exhaust manifold studs (or break them) and potentially ruin the gaskets. Also, I have had much better luck with graphite gaskets than anything else. They are a lot more expensive than paper, but it's a relative thing...relative to how CHEAP the paper stuff is.
Because of the turmoil of having sold the business, having taken it back, and all the associated logistics and management challenges of repairing the damage, rebuilding infrastructure, etc., my time is very limited. Please have patience if you e-mail me and I don't get back to you for a day or two. I won't blow you off on purpose!
E-mail is the BEST way to contact me.
For WRITTEN CORRESPONDENCE ONLY, use the address at the end of the Payment section.
However, PLEASE read the information that I have provided for you on this website. It has represents a lot of work and effort, and there is nothing more irritating than receiving an email from someone who doesn't feel they have the time to read it, but somehow I have time to repeat it to them in a personal email. I know...YOU would never do this...but you wouldn't believe how many folks would!
If the information isn't here or you can't find it (for some reason other than you just didn't look for it...in which case I will buy YOU lunch when you come to town:), then fire up the old email and ask away! If your questions are extremely detailed in nature, I suggest you obtain the Velo Rossa Installation Manual (it contains information pertinant to ALL my kits).
When you send me an email, please include:
Thanks in advance for your consideration!
My mailing address has changed. I sold my shop building and am in the process of setting up a new facility. In the interim and for MAIL ONLY the address is:
Reaction Research, Inc.
Please don't go to that address looking for me. I'm not there and it will only confuse the folks who are! If you want to see me, call in advance to make arrangements. I am happy to meet you somewhere convenient.
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This information is presented as a service only. Great care is taken to provide the best information possible. However, no warranty of expertise or accuracy is expressed or implied.